Concepts




A driving licence is valid for a specified time period. The validity of a driving licence expires when the right to drive a vehicle ends or if the holder of the right to drive has several rights to drive with different expiry dates, when the right to drive that ends first expires. Last day of validity is marked on a driving licence.

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With the exception of some variables concerning population and labour, the system shows all flows and stocks in monetary terms. The system does not attempt to determine the utility of flows and stocks. Instead, flows and stocks are measured according to their exchange value, i.e. the value at which flows and stocks are in fact, or could be, exchanged for cash. Market prices are thus the basic reference for valuation in the national accounts.

In the case of monetary transactions and cash holdings and liabilities, the values required are directly available. In most other cases, the preferred method of valuation is by reference to market prices for analogous goods, services or assets. This method is used for e.g. barter and the services of owner-occupied dwellings. When no market prices for analogous products are available, for instance in the case of non-market services produced by government, valuation should be made according to production costs. If neither of these two methods are feasible, flows and stocks may be valued at the discounted present value of expected future returns. However, due to the great uncertainty involved, this last method is only recommended as a last resort.

Stocks should be valued at current prices at the time to which the balance sheet relates, not at the time of production or acquisition of the goods or assets that form the stocks. It is sometimes necessary to value stocks at their estimated written-down current acquisition values or production costs.

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Value added (gross) refers to the value generated by any unit engaged in a production activity. In market production it is calculated by deducting from the unit's output the intermediates (goods and services) used in the production process and in non-market production by adding up compensation of employees, consumption of fixed capital and possible taxes on production and imports.

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The value added measures the total value added produced by the various factors of production in an establishment's actual operating activities. The value added is calculated by deducting the costs of operating activities from the income from the activities. Profits include also deliveries from an establishment to the enterprise's other establishments, and costs include also purchases from the enterprise's other establishments. According to the definition, costs exclude the costs related to the establishment's personnel.

The value added in production can be calculated from the gross value of production with the following formula:

= GROSS VALUE
- purchases of materials and supplies
- purchases from the enterprise's other establishments
- change in stock of materials and supplies
- external services
- other fixed and variable costs (excl. personnel costs)
+ sales losses from fixed assets
+ purchases of goods for resale
= VALUE ADDED

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A value index is a measure (ratio) that describes change in a nominal value relative to its value in the base year. The index point figure for each point in time tells what percentage a given value is at that point in time of its respective value at the base point in time. Thus, in monthly statistics the value index point figure for an examined month describes the percentage share of the value of that month of the average monthly value for the base year.

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Value of inventories includes all goods that according to a company's book-keeping form its current assets. According to Section 4 of the Book-keeping Act (1336/1997), current assets refer to commodities intended for assignment or consumption as such or after further processing.

Inventories also include purchases of goods abroad and binding purchase agreements where they represent the company's current assets. Inventories arising from commissioned work are reported by the commissioning company.

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Value-added tax (D.211) is a tax on goods or services collected in stages by enterprises and which is ultimately charged in full to the final purchasers. Value-added tax (VAT) comprises the value added tax which is collected by the General government and which is applied to national and imported products.

For the total economy account, VAT is equal to the difference between total invoiced VAT and total deductible VAT.

In the national accounts, taxes are recorded on an accrual basis. The accrual-basis method of recording differs from the cash-basis method of recording in certain respects. Tax amounts recorded on cash basis express the amount accrued on the cash account. Tax amounts recorded on an accrual basis show the amount of tax accruing from the transaction over the period of time when the tax liability was incurred.

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A vehicle manufactured for the transportation of goods. Total weight of no more than 3,500 kg.

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All road traffic vehicles liable for registration in the vehicle register.

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Total number of kilometres driven by one vehicle over a specified time period, usually twelve months.

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Vehicle-related taxes are environmental taxes levied on motor vehicles. Vehicle-related taxes in Finland comprise automobile tax, vehicle tax and motor vehicle tax.

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A vessel registered abroad which a Finnish enterprise has time chartered (hired) for its own use.

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The main unit in the Border Interview Survey is one visit to Finland made by a non-resident of Finland. A visit starts at the border crossing on arrival into Finland and ends at the next border crossing on departure from Finland. A visitor may make several visits to Finland during one trip. As a rule the Survey data concern the specific visit at the end of which the data are collected.

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Visits to friends and relatives (VFR) are so-called social visits. They are usually undertaken for relaxation, and they are often seen as a sub-category of leisure, recreation and holidays. The WTO's definition refers to the motive of the visit, and not to the mode of accommodation. In the classification by purpose they constitute a sub-category of leisure trips.

In the Finnish Travel survey visits to friends and relatives are a sub-gategory of leisure trips in which other leisure trips are combined (excl. visits to one's own holiday home). As a means of accommodation, staying with friends and relatives is classified into the category of private non-rental accommodation.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Vocational education refers to initial or further vocational education leading to a vocational qualification. Initial vocational education is education leading to upper secondary level vocational qualifications. Initial vocational education can be curriculum-based education or preparatory education for a skills examination. For a number of years now, no new students have been admitted to post-secondary or higher level of vocational education.

Education leading to further or specialist vocational qualifications are further vocational education. These are always preparatory education for a skills examination and the qualifications are based on skills examinations. Vocational education is organised both as education provided by educational institutions and as apprenticeship training. Apprenticeship training is a work-dominated form of studying in which the majority of vocational skills are learned at a workplace and then supplemented with theoretic knowledge studies, usually at an educational institution. An apprenticeship contract is an employment contract between a student and an employer.

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NMVOC is a generic name for organic compounds that easily vaporise in the atmosphere. Volatile organic compounds are released, for instance, in burning processes and when using solvents. Ozone is formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NMVOCs react in the presence of sunlight.

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A volume index describes volume change. It is obtained when price change is removed from a value index by means of a price index (deflation), in other words a value index is divided by price index and the obtained quotient is multiplied by one hundred. A volume index can also be produced direct from volume data without deflation with a price index.

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The volume index of industrial output describes the relative change in the volume of industrial output when compared with a specific base time period. In the beginning of 2002, the index with fixed weights was replaced with an index with changing weights, which takes the structural change occurring in industry into account better than the index with fixed weights.

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The volume index of sales of building construction companies describes development in the output of the industry. The index describes relative change in the volume of output compared to the average output in a base year.

The base year of the volume index is 2000 and the series starts from the year 1995. The index is published quarterly. Apart from the original index series, a seasonally adjusted series and a trend series are also calculated.

The index is calculated from deflated data on turnover by individual enterprise. The deflator is the implicit price index of Statistics Finland's volume index of newbuilding.

Data on the turnover of building construction companies are obtained from the Tax Administration's value added tax payment and reporting control records and from Statistics Finland's inquiry of large enterprises. The calculation is based on the so-called estimation of change. Included are enterprises for which comparable data are available for the examined month and for the corresponding month of the previous year. A change percentage is calculated for the industry with the data on these enterprise and the index series is then continued with this figure.

Up to the end of 2001, the 1995 Standard Industrial Classification was used in the calculations. The 2002 Standard Industrial Classification has been used as of the beginning of 2002.

Compilation of the statistics is influenced by the EC Regulation of Short-Term Statistic (No. 1165/98, http://forum.europa.eu.int/Public/irc/dsis/bmethods/info/data/new/legislation/sts.html).

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The volume index of sales of civil engineering enterprises measures development in the industry's volume of output. The index describes relative change in the output volume compared to the average output in a base year. The base year of the current volume index of sales of civil engineering enterprises is 2000. The index series starts from 1995.

The index is published quarterly. Apart from the original index series, a seasonally adjusted series and a trend series are also calculated.

Detailed data from the Tax Administration's value added tax payment and reporting control records and data obtained with Statistics Finland's inquiry of large enterprises are exploited in the index calculations. The observation unit is an enterprise or kind-of-activity unit. Additionally, Statistics Finland's cost index of civil engineering works is utilised in the calculations.

Up to the end of 2001 the 1995 Standard Industrial Classification TOL was used in the calculations. The 2002 Standard Industrial Classification TOL has been used as of the beginning of 2002.

The calculation of the index is based on the so-called estimation of change. The calculation is done with data on the volume of domestic sales liable for value added tax by individual enterprise. Enterprises whose development deviates significantly from general development within the industry are left out of the calculation. Included are enterprises for which comparable data are available for the examined time period and the corresponding time period of the previous year.

An annual change percentage for the industry is calculated with the data for the enterprises included in the calculation. The index series is continued with this figure. The effect of price changes is removed from the index series thus obtained by deflating it with the cost index of civil engineering works.

Compilation of the statistics is influenced by the EC Regulation of Short-Term Statistic (No. 1165/98, http://forum.europa.eu.int/Public/irc/dsis/bmethods/info/data/new/legislation/sts.html).

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The volume index of sales of construction enterprises describes development in the output of the entire construction industry. The index describes relative change in the volume of output compared to the average output in the base year.

The volume indices of sales of construction enterprises are obtained by weighting together the volume indices of sales of building construction, civil engineering and specialised construction activities. The used weights are the value added of output in the base year.

The index is published monthly. Apart from the original index series, a seasonally adjusted series and a trend series are also calculated.

The index is calculated using the Tax Administration's enterprise-specific periodic tax return data and data from Statistics Finland's sales inquiry. The observation unit is an enterprise or a local kind-of-activity unit.

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A voluntary association is an association founded by at least three private persons intending to join it as members or by an agreement of a corporation or foundation, and entered into the register of associations maintained by the National Board of Patents and Registration, the purpose of which is non-profit making (in other words the purpose may not be acquisition of profit or other financial benefit for the members). A voluntary association may engage in a trade or other gainful activity if an order concerning this is included in the association's by-laws or if such activity relates direct to the realisation of the association's purpose, or if the activity can be regarded as financially insignificant. E.g. sports association, political party, trade union, scout association.

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Voting percentage = proportion of voters of persons entitled to vote.

Statistics on general elections include four different voting percentages:
1) the voting percentage of Finnish citizens resident in Finland
2) the voting percentage of Finnish citizens resident abroad
3) the total voting percentage which includes both of the above
4) a separate percentage for persons belonging to group 2 above and living in Sweden.

In European Parliamentary elections a voting percentage is calculated also for citizens of other EU Member States.

In municipal elections the right to vote is not based on Finnish citizenship, but on municipality of residence (See Entitled to vote).

In municipal elections voting percentages by nationality of foreign voters are presented in addition to the total voting percentage: EU Member State, Iceland and Norway, Other country. (See also Advance voting percentage)

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Jaa