Concepts




The allocation of special drawing rights (SDRs) to IMF members is shown as a liability incurred by the recipient under SDRs in other investment. A corresponding entry is recorded under SDRs in reserve assets.

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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are defined as enterprises which have fewer than 250 employees, and have either an annual turnover not exceeding EUR 50 million (EUR 40 million before 2003), or an annual balance-sheet total not exceeding EUR 43 million (EUR 27 million before 2003) and which conform to the criterion of independence as defined below.

Independent enterprises are those which are not owned as to 25 per cent or more of the capital or the voting rights by one enterprise, or jointly by several enterprises, falling outside the definition of an SME or a small enterprise, whichever may apply.

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A sale and lease back contract is an arrangement whereby the owner of an asset sells that asset to a finance company and immediately leases it back. A sale and lease back arrangement normally involves only two parties: the financing company and the customer. The seller of the asset and the lessee are one and the same person, both nominally and factually. The lessee is normally the original owner of the asset, who retains possession and use of the asset during the entire duration of the sale and leaseback arrangement. The subject of lease is usually a building, but can be any kind of property, movable or immovable.

Specified data on sale and lease back contracts were collected in the statistics on financial leasing until 2008. From 2009 onwards the sale and lease back activity is included in other financial leasing activity in the statistics.

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The sales inquiry covers around 2,000 most important enterprises in their respective industries from which data on turnover are collected monthly. In addition, data on the sum of wages and salaries are inquired from around 30 enterprises divided into kind-of-activity units, because these are not available from other sources.

The inquiry does not extend to enterprises operating in financing, the public sector, education or health and social care, because turnover data are not produced for them. The inclusion criterion is the size of the enterprise's turnover relative to the turnover of the respective industry.

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Sales surface area comprises
- total area in use of customers, including fitting rooms
- sales counters and shopwindows
- space behind sales counters reserved for salespersons.

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Same-day visits concern the activities of visitors who do not stay overnight in collective or private accommodation in the place (region, country) visited.

A same-day visit can be headed abroad (international same-day visit) or to the domestic country (domestic same-day visit). The definition of a same-day visit is derived from the World Tourism Organization's (WTO) definition for a same-day visitor, and it is also used in the EU tourism statistics.

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Same-day visitor refers to a visitor who does not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited. An international same-day visitor is an international visitor who does not spend the night in the country visited. A domestic same-day visitor is a domestic visitor who does not spend the night in the place visited.

A same-day visitor stays less than 24 hours in the place/country visited, the arrival and the departure takes place within the same calendar day. Same-day visitors are also such cruise passengers who spend the night on board a ship and visit the destination place/country without overnighting there. In this case, ship is the place of departure of the same-day visitor.

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Saving is the balancing item in the use of income accounts. It is the positive or negative amount resulting from current transactions which establishes the link with accumulation. If saving is positive, non-spent income is used for the acquisition of assets or for paying off liabilities. If saving is negative, certain assets are liquidated or certain liabilities increase.

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A savings bank and a joint-stock savings bank company are deposit banks as referred to in the Act on Credit Institutions (1993/1607), whose specific objective is promotion of saving. The Ministry of Finance grants licences for savings banks, which are entered into the Trade Register.

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In the statistics on comprehensive school education, a school-leaving certificate refers to a certificate issued to a pupil who has satisfactorily completed the full comprehensive school syllabus. A school-leaving certificate from comprehensive school can be received from a comprehensive school, upper secondary general school or folk high school. School-leaving certificates issued by educational institutes other than comprehensives schools are not included in the number of school-leaving certificates in the statistics on comprehensive school education.

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In the statistics on upper secondary general education and on subject choices of students, a school-leaving certificate from upper secondary general school refers to a certificate issued to a student who has completed satisfactorily the full upper secondary general school syllabusiculum. A school-leaving certificate from upper secondary general school can be issued by an upper secondary general school or a folk high school.

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Seasonal variation is variation in a time series within one year that is repeated more or less regularly. Seasonal variation may be caused by the temperature, rainfall, public holidays, cycles of seasons or holidays.

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A seasonally adjusted series is obtained when the effect of seasonal variation is eliminated from the original time series. The figures of a seasonally adjusted series are mutually comparable and thus it is meaningful to compare two successive observations. A seasonally adjusted series can be used for detecting short-term developments and significant turns of economic cycles.

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The secondary activity recorded by a respondent in a time-use diary. E.g. preparing breakfast may be a principal activity and listening to the radio a secondary activity.

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The secondary income account shows current transfers between residents and non-residents. A transfer is an entry that corresponds to the provision of a good, service, financial asset or other non-produced asset by an institutional unit to another institutional unit where there is no corresponding return of an item of economic value. Current transfers consist of all transfers that are not capital transfers. Current transfers are classified according to the institutional sector making or receiving the transfer in the compiling economy (general government or other sectors).
General government current transfers comprise current taxes on income, wealth, etc., social contributions, social benefits, current international cooperation, miscellaneous current transfers, VAT and GNI-based Union own resources.
Other sectors' current transfers comprise current taxes on income, wealth, etc., social contributions, social benefits, miscellaneous current transfers, net non-life insurance premiums, non-life insurance claims and adjustments for the changes in pension entitlements. Miscellaneous current transfers include personal transfer between resident and non- resident households (of which workers' remittances).

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Work made in addition to the employee's or self-employed person's main job. The definition of main and secondary jobs is based on the respondent's own reporting. The secondary job is usually the job on which less time is spent or from which the earnings gained are lower than from the main job.

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The ratio of those working at secondary jobs in the survey week to all employed persons.

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In the statistics on educational institutions, education is divided into the following sectors of education:
- Comprehensive school education
- Upper secondary general education
- Vocational education
- University of applied sciences education
- University education.

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The Tax Administration's self-assessed tax data contain monthly and quarterly information concerning the payment of employer contributions and in respect of the payment of value added tax also yearly data. The observation unit is an enterprise. The self-assessed tax data cover all enterprises and employers paying wages which the tax account reform concerns, in other words, almost the entire entrepreneurial activity in Finland. Self-assessed tax data were formerly called periodic tax return data.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A self-employed person employing paid labour force.

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Self-employed persons are defined as persons who are the sole owners, or joint owners, of the unincorporated enterprises in which they work, excluding those unincorporated enterprises that are classified as quasi-corporations. Self-employed persons are classified here if they are not also in a paid employment which constitutes their principal activity: in that latter case they are classified under employees.

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A self-employed person or an own-account worker with no paid labour force.

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A semi-trailer is a towed vehicle which is designed to be coupled to a semi-trailer towing vehicle or to a dolly. It imposes a substantial static vertical load on the towing vehicle or on the dolly.

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A person who has committed an offence when under 21 years of age may be subjected to supervision for one year and three months in order to reinforce conditional imprisonment, where this is to be deemed justified in view of the promotion of the social adaptation of the perpetrator and the prevention of further offences. (Criminal Code, Chapter 6, Section 10, Sub-section 2).

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Separate heat production refers to the production of heat by heating plants, heating boilers and transportable heating plants designed for the generation of heat only. Separate production of heat also comprises the heat recovered direct from boilers through reduction valves at separate electricity generation plants or combined heat and electricity production plants.

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Separate production of electricity refers to the generation of electricity in thermal and nuclear power plants, separate production with gas turbines and combustions engines, and hydro and wind power. Separate production also refers to the volume of electricity corresponding to the condensing load produced during off-peak heat load periods at combined heat and power plants, and supplementary production with auxiliary condensers.

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Separately collected waste refers to waste that is collected for a specific purpose separately from mixed waste, which is made possible by sorting at source. Separately collected waste may comprise more than one waste material, e.g. biowaste.

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Adjustments for trading days take into account different distributions of weekdays and public hoidays in compared months. Trading days could put the sales of an industry above normal in a certain month if the month concerned contains a higher than usual number of Fridays. In other words, the aim in making adjustments for trading days is to remove calendar effects in order to make the index figures for corresponding months of different years as comparable as possible. However, adjustments for trading days do not remove the effects of monthly seasonal variation.

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A person who has not died in an accident (or within 30 days of it), but has sustained in the accident injuries which require medical care or observation in a care institution, and who has visited a doctor within six days of the accident, and the injuries are classified as serious in accordance with the AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale (AAAM, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine).

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The information about sex has been obtained from the Population Information System.

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The "share of young people not working, studying or performing compulsory military service" used by Statistics Finland's Labour Force Survey describes the share of young people aged 15 to 24 who are not working, studying for a degree or qualification, attending course training or performing military or non-military service compared to the entire age group.

The figure of Statistics Finland's Labour Force Survey differs slightly from the almost corresponding NEET rate used by Eurostat. NEET is an abbreviation of "Not in Employment, Education or Training". The figure published by Eurostat is based on data where the population does not include young people performing military or non-military service.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Shares and participations in associated companies as defined in the Book-keeping Act, shares and participations in real estate companies not included.

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Shares and participations in subsidiaries as defined in the Book-keeping Act, shares and participations in real estate companies not included.

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Shift work is work in which shifts change regularly according to an agreed rota of time periods. If the person permanently works only a specific shift, such as night shift, he/she is not counted as a shift worker.

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A shipping company under joint ownership is a corporate form reserved only for merchant shipping activity. A shipping company under joint ownership is born when two or more natural or legal persons join together to practise merchant shipping for hire or reward for mutual benefit with a vessel of which the partners (proprietors) themselves own specified shares.

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In the tourism statistics of the EU (Eurostat) trips are broken down by duration into two main categories: short trips and long trips. Short trips consist of 1-3 nights and long trips of four or more nights. The maximum duration of a trip is 12 consecutive months. In the Finnish Travel Survey, the total number of nights spent (duration of trip) includes overnight travelling by boat/ferry, train or other vehicle.

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The first car driving licence is initially issued for only two years (short-term car driving licence). The driving test examiner issues the short-term driving licence after an accepted pass of a driving test. Before being issued a permanent driving licence the holder of a short-term driving licence must complete the further driver training prescribed in law. This can be done no sooner than six months from obtaining a short-term driving licence. A certificate of this further training must be submitted to the police. The police will then issue a permanent driving licence, but no earlier than six months before the expiry of the short-term licence. The short-term driving licence must be surrendered to the police in exchange for the permanent driving licence.

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Absence from the main job in the survey week because of the employed person's own sickness or accident.

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Any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere.

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A mixture of a liquid and a high percentage of finely powdered solid substance. In waste statistics the liquid of the mixture is included in the amount of waste, but not in the case of a sludge in which the liquid content is high compared to the solid matter.

Only the dry matter contained in the sludge from waste water treatment plants is regarded as waste in statistics.

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1. Small and medium sized enterprises, hereafter SMEs, are defined as enterprises,
- with fewer than 250 paid employees
and whose
- annual turnover is either not more than EUR 50 million
- or balance sheet total is not more than EUR 43 million
- and which meet the criterion on independence under section 3 of the definition.

2. When small enterprises must be differentiated from medium sized enterprises
a 'small enterprise' is defined as an enterprise
- with fewer than 50 paid employees
and whose
- annual turnover is either not more than EUR 10 million
- or balance sheet total is not more than EUR 10 million
- and which meets the criterion on independence under section 3 of the definition.

3. Independent enterprises are enterprises of whose equity or voting stock
25 per cent or more are not held by one enterprise
or jointly held by such enterprises to which
either the definition of an SME or of a small enterprise cannot be applied depending on the circumstances.

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Small combustion of wood refers to the use of firewood in households and in the heating of farms and service buildings. Apart from firewood material it also includes wood waste from demolition and construction activity.

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A company whose principal business activity is granting of small or smallish unsecured consumer credits with a typical original maturity, or repayment term, of less than three months. These loans are typically paid back in one or just a couple of instalments. In addition, the loans generally carry no actual nominal rate of interest, but all their costs usually arise from other expenses, such as handling and processing fees, and service and SMS charges. The services of a small loan company can typically be ordered by SMS or via the Internet, whereby the loan is at the client's disposal very quickly.

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Social benefits other than social transfers in kind (D.62) include:

a) Social security benefits in cash are payable to households by social security funds and are provided under social security schemes. E.g. pensions, unemployment benefits.

b) Social assistance benefits in cash are payable to households by government units to meet the same needs as social insurance benefits but are not made under a social insurance scheme incorporating social contributions and social insurance benefits. E.g. living allowances paid by municipalities, child maintenance allowances.

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Social security contributions (OECD Classification of Taxes heading 2000) covers all compulsory payments that confer an entitlement to receive a (contingent) future social benefit. These include a) employers' social security contributions, e.g. unemployment insurance and old-age insurance premia paid by employers, b) employees' social security contributions, e.g. unemployment insurance and old-age insurance premia paid by employees, employees' contributions to the National Pension Insurance scheme and to the National Health Insurance scheme, c) social security contributions paid by independent entrepreneurs and non-employed persons, e.g. old-age insurance premia paid by entrepreneurs.

The OECD Classification of Taxes heading "Social security contributions" covers only statutory social security contributions, and does not include voluntary social security (a sub-heading under D.611 "Actual social contributions" in the national accounts).

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Social transfers in kind consist of individual goods and services provided as transfers in kind to individual households by government units and non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs), whether purchased on the market or produced as non-market output by government units or NPISHs.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D are considered in the statistics according to the social policy (socio-economic) objective. The definitions used in Finland are based on the Nordic Nordforsk classification.

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In the statistics on manufacturing commodities, sold output refers to the output manufactured by an enterprise or its establishment and sold outside the enterprise during the calendar year irrespective of the date of production.

Sold output also includes sale from stock. The value or quantity of sold output does not include selling of such goods that have been sold as such, without further processing, to other enterprises (merchandise).

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A sole proprietor engages in entrepreneurial activity under his/her own name or under a registered trading name. Self-employed persons, most own-account workers in agriculture and practitioners of a trade belong to this group.

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An offence known to the police is regarded as solved when the circumstances in which the offence was committed, the parties involved as well as other factors necessary for making the decision on bringing charges and for the trial have been clarified. The decision is made by the officer in charge of the pre-trial investigation.

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The social cost index, which is part of the labour cost index, measures the development of employers' statutory and voluntary social insurance contri-butions calculated per hour worked.
See more about social security costs under the concept of labour costs.
..

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Any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.

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Spatial data is a characteristic that describes the location, geometrics or topology of a spatial object. Spatial data are given as coordinates, an address, locality or other known object.

See also geographic information and attribute data

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A court dealing with specific issues laid down in Acts.

The Insurance Court, the Labour Court and the Market Court are special courts.

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In the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools and in the statistics on pre-primary and comprehensive school education, special education refers to teaching arranged from 1995 to 2010 for those accepted and transferred to special education and starting from 2011 that arranged for pupils receiving special support because of disability, illness, delayed development, emotional disturbance or some other comparable special reason. Part-time special education is also special education that pupils can have besides other teaching if they have difficulties in learning or school attendance.

In the statistics on special education in vocational education, special education refers (since 1999) to teaching that is organised because of disability, illness, de-layed development or some other reason for students requiring special teaching or student services. The law on vocational education obliges that an individual plan concerning the arrangement of teaching must be drawn up for the student.

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A "tailored" index made to customer order, where the commodities and weight structure are defined by the customer. The weights used in the index can be either Statistics Finland's or the customer's own weights.

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Special niche services are highly specialised services produced for a certain niche in the market.

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In the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools and in the statistics on pre-primary and comprehensive school education, special support refers to support to pupils on which a written decision has been made concerning provision of special support. Special support is provided to pupils for whom the attainment of the objectives of growth, development and learning is not sufficiently realised with other supporting measures. Special support is arranged either in the scope of general or extended compulsory education and it is formed of special education and other support.

Before the decision on special support, the pupil and his or her guardian are heard and a pedagogical survey is made, including an assessment of the need for special support. The decision is checked at least after the second grade and before the transition to the seventh grade. An individual plan on the arrangement of teaching is made for special support pupils.

Support to learning and school attendance can be divided into general, intensified and special support. If general support is not enough, intensified support is provided. If intensified support is not enough, special support is provided. Comprehensive school pupils accepted and transferred to special education in previous years (1995-2010) are considered equal to special support pupils.

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The classification of stages in life is used to distinguish between the stages of a household-dwelling unit, which usually differ in terms of income and consumption. The classification is based on type of household-dwelling unit, age of reference person and age of children.

The household-dwelling unit's stage in life is described by the age of the reference person in cases where the household-dwelling unit does not comprise a family (single-person households, non-family households comprising at least two persons) or where the family consists of a married or cohabiting couple without children. The stage in life of a family with children is determined by the age of the children belonging to the household-dwelling unit. Since 1993 families consisting of a cohabiting couple with children have been classified separately from families consisting of a married couple with children.

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As from 2005, only two categories are used to describe the standard of equipment:
- High standard of equipment: the dwelling has running water, sewage, hot water, toilet, washing facilities (shower/bathroom or sauna) and central or electric heating
- Other or unknown level of equipment.

In the previous years, three categories have been used to describe the standard of equipment in a dwelling:
- High standard of equipment: the dwelling has running water, sewage, hot water, toilet, washing facilities (shower/bathroom or sauna) and central or electric heating
- low standard of equipment: the dwelling only lacks washing facilities and/or central heating (or electric heating)
- substandard of equipment: the dwelling lacks one of the following facilities: running water, sewage, hot water or toilet.

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As a rule the starting date of a legal unit is the date of its registration with the Tax Administration or in the Company Register, or in the case of a natural person the starting date of Business ID. The data are also deduced from the starting dates of data describing certain characteristics, and artificial dates are used to substitute missing and erroneous data, especially in the case of older units.

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Starting form describes how the activity of an enterprise has started. Starting forms include birth, change of legal form and continuation of activity.

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The Evangelical-Lutheran Church and the Orthodox Church as defined in the Church Code (1993/1954) and in the Act on the Orthodox Church (2006/985). This also includes congregations and chapters of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church and congregations, and monasteries and convents of the Orthodox Church.

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Guarantees granted by state institutions and Finnvera. Guarantees granted by Finnvera on its own risk do not constitute state guarantees. The State guarantees e.g. student loans and housing loans.

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Income tax is paid to the State on the basis of the size of taxable income. Income tax on earned income is determined according to the progressive income tax scale. Income tax on capital income is determined according to the relative capital tax stock, which was 25 per cent between 1993 and 1995, 28 per cent from 1996 to 1999, 29 per cent from 2000 and again 28 per cent from 2005. Wealth tax is no longer levied as of 2006.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Statistical discrepancy is the difference between demand and supply in na-tional accounts. Even though by definition the items should be equal in the national economy, they usually deviate from one another due to deviation in statistical sources and they are not forced to be equal in the Finnish system of accounts.

In financial accounts, the statistical discrepancy describes the difference be-tween net lending in financial accounts and non-financial national accounts.

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Statistics Finland introduced a new statistical grouping of municipalities in 1989. The classification groups municipalities according to their degrees of urbanisation and rurality. The municipal classification divides municipalities into three categories according to the proportion of people living in urban settlements and the population of the largest urban settlement: urban municipalities, semi-urban municipalities, rural municipalities.

Urban municipalities include those municipalities in which at least 90 per cent of the population lives in urban settlements or in which the population of the largest urban settlement is at least 15,000.

Semi-urban municipalities are municipalities in which at least 60 per cent but less than 90 per cent of the population lives in urban settlements and in which the population of the largest urban settlement is at least 4,000 but less than 15,000.

Rural municipalities include those municipalities in which less than 60 per cent of the population lives in urban settlements and in which the population of the largest urban settlement is less than 15,000; and those municipalities in which at least 60 per cent but less than 90 per cent of the population lives in urban settlements and in which the population of the largest settlement is less than 4,000.

A list of all municipalities, types of municipality and the changes that have occurred in them are included in Statistics Finland's Regional Divisions Based on Municipalities publication.

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All clusters of buildings with at least 200 inhabitants where the distance between buildings does not exceed 200 metres are defined as statistical localities. In defining localities, not only residential but also business, office and other buildings used as workplaces are taken into account. Administrative regional divisions do not have an effect on the formation of localities.

A statistical locality is also referred to as 'locality' in connection with Statistics Finland's data.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Statistical year is the calendar year a set of statistics concerns.

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Describe the value of inventories of enterprises in the industry of manufacturing (TOL D) at the end of a quarter. Inventories are divided into four groups: materials and supplies, fuels and lubricants, work in progress, finished goods and goods for resale. When the statistics are published, materials and supplies and fuels and lubricants are combined.

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Statistics on trade inventories describe the current priced values of trade enterprises by industry. The statistics are compiled quarterly. The values of inventories by industry calculated from a sample are raised to correspond with the value of the inventories of the whole population (enterprise whose industry is trade) using the latest turnover data available from Statistics Finland's Register of Enterprises and Establishments. The raising is based on the assumption that the ratio between the values of turnover and inventories is constant within an industry.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Stock of enterprises refers to cross-sectional data on the total number of active enterprise at a given point in time. The number of enterprises is influenced by fluctuations in the availability of information about enterprise start-ups and closures. The data are published in the Business Register statistics on enterprise start-ups and closures.

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The total amount of central government outstanding guarantee commitments for which the guarantor (state) is liable in the reference period. The amounts do not include interest due.

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Number of vehicles registered as lorries in the vehicle register at a certain point in time (usually year-end).

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The value of the capital invested by a foreign direct investor in Finnish direct investment enterprises at a given moment (inward direct investments). Correspondingly, the value of the capital invested by a Finnish direct investor in foreign direct investment enterprises at a given moment (outward direct investments).

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The system records two basic kinds of information: flows and stocks. Flows refer to actions and effects of events that take place within a given period of time, while stocks refer to positions at a point of time.

Stocks are holdings of assets and liabilities at a point in time. Stocks are recorded at the beginning and end of each accounting period. The accounts that show stocks are called balance sheets. Stocks are also recorded for population and employment. However, these stocks are recorded as mean values over the accounting period.

Stocks are recorded for all assets within the system’s boundaries; that is, for financial assets and liabilities and for non-financial assets, both produced and non-produced. However, the coverage is limited to those assets that are used in economic activity and that are subject to ownership rights. Thus, stocks are not recorded for assets such as human capital and natural resources that are not owned.

Within its boundaries, the system is exhaustive in respect of both flows and stocks. This implies that all changes in stocks can be fully explained by recorded flows.

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Employees refuse to work and then they do not usually come to the workplace.

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In their first delivery of tailored trend indicator data customers receive a structural analysis of economic activity in the chosen area. The structural analysis is a table printout of data on numbers of enterprises and establishments and chosen variables, such as turnover, sum of wages and salaries or number of employees. The structural analysis also shows the shares of the area selected by the customer of the turnover, wages and salaries or numbers of employees of the respective industries in the whole country.

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Household-dwelling units are divided according to their structure into two categories:

Family household-dwelling units comprise:
- 1 family, no other persons
- 1 family and other persons
- at least 2 families, no other persons
- at least 2 families and possibly other persons.

Other household-dwelling units comprise:
- 1 person
- 2 persons, both of the same sex
- 2 persons, male and female
- at least 3 persons, all of the same sex
- at least 3 persons, male and female.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Municipal sub-areas are formed of operationally functional wholes defined by the municipality itself, which are the basis of the municipality's regional planning and monitoring. Statistics Finland is responsible for digitising new sub-area boundaries and for maintaining name files. Municipalities have the opportunity to check their sub-area division once a year.

The division into sub-areas is a hierarchical three-level classification which has a 1-digit major area level, a 2-digit statistical area level and a 3-digit small area level. Sub-areas are numbered consecutively using these three hierarchical levels. The 6-digit sub-area code is bound to the 3-digit municipality code, so the sub-area code consists of a total of nine characters.

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A group whose group head is some other group's subsidiary company.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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In the statistics on subject choices the point of departure for language choice is the student's choice. Language choices are reported according to the length of studies in a language.

A1 language is a common (compulsory) language started in grades 1 to 6.
A2 language is an optional language started in grades 1 to 6.
B1 language is a common (compulsory) language started in grades 7 to 9.
B2 language is an optional language started in grades 7 to 9 (at least six courses in upper secondary general school).
B3 language is an optional language started in upper secondary general school (at least six courses).
"Optional language, less than six courses" is a language started in upper secondary general school and studied for fewer than six courses.

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In the statistics on adult education of educational institutions a subject student refers to a student who studies a specific subject belonging to the syllabus, but not the full syllabus, of comprehensive school or upper secondary general school education.

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In the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools, for pupils with a decision on special support the subject syllabuses are from 2011 as follows:
1. Syllabuses of all subjects are taught according to the general syllabus (no indi-vidualised syllabuses)
2. The syllabus of one subject is individualised
3. The syllabus of two to three subjects is individualised
4. The syllabus of at least four subjects is individualised
5. The pupil is studying according to functional skill areas.

In 2001 to 2010, the concept "place of provision of special education" corresponds to the concept "subject syllabuses".

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Debt securities issued by a credit institution under conditions of subordinate priority relative to other liabilities incurred by the credit institution. The item also includes perpetuals and other subordinated hybrid capital instruments.

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A subsidiary company of a group is an enterprise in which the group head holds direct or indirect over 50 per cent of voting rights.

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Subsidies (D.3) are current unrequited payments which general government or the institutions of the European Union make to resident producers, with the objective of influencing their levels of production, their prices or the remuneration of the factors of production. Other non-market producers can receive other subsidies on production only if those payments depend on general regulations applicable to market and non-market producers as well.

Subsidies granted by the Institutions of the European Union cover only current transfers made directly by them to resident producer units.

Subsidies are classified into:

a) subsidies on products (D.31)
(1) import subsidies (D.311)
(2) other subsidies on products (D.319)
b) other subsidies on production (D.39).

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Successive employment relationships refer to so-called chained employment relationships for the same employer, which follow each other almost immediately - after a break of at most one week.

In the field of education employment relationships with a break of the whole summer can be taken into account. It is quite common in the branch that a fixed-term employment relationship ends at the beginning of the summer when the term ends, and a new employment relationship is started in the autumn at the beginning of the term.

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Sulphur dioxide is produced from the burning of fossil fuels and the smelting of mineral ores that contain sulphur. When sulphur dioxide combines with water, it forms sulphuric acid and acid rain. Acid rain can cause deforestation, acidify waterways and corrode building materials.

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The wages and salaries sum refers to the sum total of the gross wages and salaries paid to employees without incentive stock options.

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A summary penal fee or petty fine is a pecuniary penalty of a fixed amount and less severe than a fine. The summary penal fee may have a size of EUR 20, 40, 70, 100, 120, 140, 170 or 200 and since 1.9.2015 size of EUR 20, 40, 70, 100, 120, 140, 170 or 200. If the person commits two or more infractions at the same time, the summary penal fee is imposed for the offence for which the summary penal fee provided is the highest. A joint punishment must not be passed for a summary penal fee and a fine or a sentence of imprisonment for a fixed period. An unpaid summary penal fee must not be converted into imprisonment.

A summary penal fee is imposed by a police officer or another official carrying out a statutory supervision function. Those sentenced to a summary penal fee may submit the matter to the district court. The imposition of a summary penal fee is decreed in the Act on the imposition of a fine and summary penal fee (754/2010).

The scope of the summary penal fee is decreed in Chapter 2, Sections 8 to 11 of the Criminal Code and in the Act on summary penal fee infractions (756/2010) and Government Decree of the summary penal fee offences (1081/2015).

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The district court must impose a supervised right to drive on those guilty of drunken driving (Criminal Code, Chapter 23, Section 3) or aggravated drunken driving (Criminal Code, Chapter 23, Section 4) intended in the Act on driving right monitored with a alcohol interlock if requested by the person for whom the driving ban is issued. The driving ban must be issued as conditional. (Driving Licence Act 386/2011).

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A supplementary fine imposed as day fines may be sentenced in addition to conditional imprisonment.

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Annual data on the supply, foreign trade, consumption and production of wood and forestry products by economic activity and commodity group are gathered into one table in the supply-use balance. The balance monitors the consumption of wood and its processing into intermediate and final products, final consumption of wood products, use of by-products from wood processing as raw material or energy sources, and production of forestry products.

Volumes of saw timber, pulpwood and fuel wood, and forest processed chips, residues, sawn timber, plywood and chipboard are reported in thousands of solid cubic metres. Volumes of fibreboard, mechanical and chemical pulp, spent liquor, paper and board, and recycled paper are reported in thousands of tonnes.

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