Concepts




Tailored trend indicators is a charged information service providing fast data by area on e.g. turnover, exports, wages and salaries or numbers of employees. Additional growth reviews can be produced to elaborate on the factors behind development trends. The data on development in business trends can be supplied to the customers monthly, quarterly or annually as agreed.

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The tax-based financing of municipalities comprises municipal tax revenue and state subsidies to municipalities.

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The general tax liability concerns persons living in Finland in the tax year and domestic corporations. The person is considered to have resided in Finland if he or she has here a permanent dwelling and home, or if he or she continuously stays here for over six months, when temporary absence does not preclude the stay from being considered continuous.

A person who has not lived in Finland in the tax year and a foreign corporation is liable to pay tax only on income received from Finland (limited tax liability). State and municipal taxes on persons with limited tax liability are taxed according to the so-called withholding tax legislation. Withholding tax concerns wages and salaries and pension income, interest, shares and royalties received from Finland. Instead, tax is imposed on other income of a person with limited tax liability according to the taxation legislation.

Municipal tax is paid on earned income to the municipality of residence. The municipality of residence is that where the taxpayer was registered at the start of the tax year.

The result of the business activity of a self-employed person is determined according to the act on taxation of business income. Taxable income in business activity is in principle all income received as money or monetary benefit. Deductible expenses are expenses and losses caused by the acquisition or maintenance of income in business activity.

Taxable income of a self-employed person in agriculture is determined on the basis of the act on taxation of agriculture. Agricultural income refers to the sum of pure income from agriculture. Pure income from agriculture is derived when expenses caused by the acquisition or maintenance of income are deducted from pure income obtained as money or monetary benefit during the tax year.

In connection with the tax reform in 1993, taxation on income derived from forestry was amended to be based on actual income and expenditure. Proceeds from forestry sales are taxed as capital tax, except for the value of acquisition work. However, acreage-based forest taxation that was previously applied to all forest owners remained as a parallel system during the transition period from 1993 to 2005 until its final abandonment in 2006.

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The amount of compulsory taxes and other levies collected by general government during the year, expressed as a percentage of GDP for that year.

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In the financial statement municipal tax revenue is entered as tax revenue for the accounting period when the Tax Administration made the transfer. Transfers of municipal tax revenue during an accounting period include:
- monthly transfers of payroll tax and advance payments of taxes
- transfers of taxes levied under the Tax Assessment Procedure Act during tax years preceding the accounting period
- adjustment transfers.

Corporation tax transfers during the accounting period include the transfers of advance payments of taxes and other transfers of corporation tax. The tax on real property transferred during the accounting period is entered as revenue from municipal tax on real property. Dog tax, which is levied by the municipality, is entered as revenue for the accounting period when it's collected or according to accumulation.

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Taxable agricultural income includes inter alia:

- sales prices and other compensation for agricultural and horticultural produce as well as livestock;
- sales prices for machines and buildings;
- farm subsidies and compensations;
- sales price and other compensations as well as insurance and other indemnities for gravel, clay, earth, peat, reindeer moss and other substances that have been removed from the farm;
- sales price for products from a production facility on the farm as well as compensations from another activity in connection with agriculture or forestry, unless the production facility or activity is deemed to be a separate business;
- sales price for products obtained through hunting or fishing;
- rents and other compensations for the use of machines, tools and appliances, horses and other production equipment, as well as such wages and other work-related compensations for work performed by the taxpayer or by workers hired for agricultural or forestry work that are paid in connection with compensations for the use of production equipment;
- land rent, rents and other similar compensations received for the farm or part of it or for buildings situated on the farm;
- sales prices for agricultural equipment acquired by purchase;
- the probable sales price at the time of sales for such agricultural and horticultural produce, gravel, clay, earth, peat, reindeer moss and other substances that have been removed from the farm and transferred to another income source of the taxpayer.

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With certain exceptions, all income received in money or monetary benefit is subject to tax. Some social assistance, pensions, daily allowances and compensations are not subject to tax. Such are child benefit, housing allowance and social assistance. The statistics do not either include interest income subject to withholding tax. Grants and scholarships received from general government are neither liable to tax.

Taxable income of a natural person and decedent's estate are divided into earned and capital income. The income tax act contains in principle an exhaustive list of capital income. Earned income is other than capital income. Tax is paid to the State only on capital income, while in addition to State income tax, municipal tax and sickness insurance contribution are determined on the basis of earned income.

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In OECD statistics, taxes and other levies include compulsory, unrequited payments to general government, including compulsory social security contributions and customs duties, sugar levies and levies on agricultural goods collected by the member states on behalf of the European Union.

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Taxes on goods and services (OECD Classification of Taxes heading 5000) covers all taxes and duties levied on the production, extraction, sale, transfer, leasing or delivery of goods, and the rendering of services, or in respect of the use of goods or permission to use goods or to perform activities. E.g. value added tax, excise duties on alcoholic beverages, motorcar tax, vehicle tax, waste tax.

"VAT own resources" collected from EU member states are shown as a tax of the EU member states in the OECD tax statistics. In the national accounts, these amounts are shown as a tax of the European Union.

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Taxes on payroll and workforce (OECD Classification of Taxes heading 3000) covers taxes paid either as a proportion of payroll or as a fixed amount per person, and which do not confer entitlement to social benefits. Not in use in Finland at the present time.

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Taxes on production and imports (D.2) consist of compulsory, unrequited payments, in cash or in kind which are levied by general government, or by the Institutions of the European Union, in respect of the production and importation of goods and services, the employment of labour, the ownership or use of land, buildings or other assets used in production. These taxes are payable whether or not profits are made.

Taxes on production and imports are divided into:
a) taxes on products (D.21)
(1) value added type taxes (VAT) (D.211)
(2) taxes and duties on imports excluding VAT (D.212)
– import duties (D.2121)
– taxes on imports excluding VAT and import duties (D.2122)
(3) taxes on products, except VAT and import taxes (D.214)
b) other taxes on production (D.29).

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Taxes on property (OECD Classification of Taxes heading 4000) covers recurrent and non-recurrent taxes on the use, ownership or transfer of property. These include taxes on immovable property or net wealth, taxes on the change of ownership of property through inheritance or gift and taxes on financial and capital transactions; e.g. the inheritance and gift tax, the asset transfer tax, and the immovable property tax.

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In the municipal sector teachers are defined as those who follow the collective agreement for civil servants and employees in the educational sector. Teachers working for the State and the private sector were determined on the basis of their job title or occupational category.

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In the statistics on the adult education of educational institutions teaching hours refer to the hours of teaching provided by teachers, e.g. lecturers, etc.

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Team work refers to working in a permanent group or team, which has a common task and has the opportunity to plan its work.

A group is often defined as a continuously interacting community or set formed by two or more people with common goals. In working life groups and teams can be founded to look after a continuing task or production or on the other hand, for some restricted task only.

It is a question of the respondent doing his or her normal work in a group or in several groups. Included are not some separate representative tasks demanding only little working time in different work groups. On the other hand, group working is difficult to distinguish from a small work unit that works according to a certain division of work. The respondent's personal opinion is here decisive: whether he or she calls his or her work team or group work. In some branches, such as the metal industry, the corresponding units are called cells.

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1) Architectural, engineering and other technical services

Architectural, engineering and other technical services covers consulting and planning services, project monitoring services, architectural services relating to urban planning and landscaping, cartography, product testing and certification, technical inspection services, exports (sales) and imports (purchases) of services related to project management which take place after project completions. The item further covers architectural planning and project planning of urban and other development projects on the turnkey principle (e.g. dams, bridges, airports).

2) Agricultural services, mining services and on-site processing services

This item covers the provision of agricultural machinery with operator, harvesting, treatment of crops, pest control, and services relating to forestry, hunting and fishing purchased from or sold to a foreign enterprise. The item also includes technical services provided at oil and gas fields, such as drilling, building, repair and dismantling services of derricks, and mineral prospecting and exploration, as well as mine maintenance, drilling, inspection and repair services.

The item also includes treatment, storage and disposal of waste, pollution prevention and decontamination, and environmental consulting and auditing.

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A technological innovation is a new or improved product or process whose technological characteristics are significantly different from before. Implemented technological product innovations are new products (product innovations) or processes in application (process innovations) that have been brought to market. The product or process is considered to be an innovation if it achieves specified advantages for the enterprise concerned; these need not be new from the point of view of other companies or the market.

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A service operator is an operator that transmits messages via a communications network in its possession or obtained for use from a network operator, or distributes or provides messages in a mass communications network (source: Communications Market Act, 23.5.2003/393, FINLEX).

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Telecommunications means a network service or communications service. A network service is a service provided by a network operator. A communications service is a service provided by a service operator.

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A telecommunications operator is a network operator or service operator.

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Employees with an employment contract for a fixed term, for a trial period, or for carrying out certain tasks are considered as being in temporary employment.

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Dwellings are classified according to tenure status as follows:

Owner-occupied dwelling
- occupant of the dwelling owns the house
- occupant of the dwelling owns shares in housing corporation

Rented dwelling
- rented dwelling subsidised by the State
- rented dwelling with interest support loan
- other rented dwelling

Right of occupancy dwelling

Other tenure status
- e.g. life annuity, kinship

Tenure status unknown

In the dwelling stock statistics the tenure status is mainly defined for permanently occupied dwellings.

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Terajoule (TJ) is a measurement unit of energy that is often used to express the energy content of fuels. 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh

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Terawatt hour (TWh)is a unit of energy used for expressing the amount of produced energy, electricity and heat. 1 TWh = 1,000 GWh = 1,000,000 MWh = 1,000,000 000 kWh; 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh

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In the statistics on the educational structure of the population, tertiary degrees comprise all lower, higher and doctorate level tertiary degrees.

Up to the end of 2001, only degrees obtained at universities and experimental or permanent university of applied sciences in accordance with the decree on universities (464/1998) were included in tertiary degrees.

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The user cost of capital is the price of capital services. The user cost of capital describes the amount of money which would have been needed during the year to cover the use of capital good services to the value of EUR x. This includes capital financing costs or an alternative cost for capital now being unavailable for use elsewhere in production and gains or losses caused by price changes in the capital good and consumption of capital in use...

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A thematic map is a map that shows the geographic occurrence, strength or fluctuation of the selected phenomenon or theme. A thematic map can present several phenomena simultaneously. One can also speak of a statistical thematic map when the data presented in the map are based on statistical calculation or research.

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Work takes place in three shifts around the day (morning, evening and night shift). Can be interrupted (e.g. production is interrupted for the weekend at workplace) or uninterrupted. Four-shift, five-shift and six-shift work are forms of uninterrupted three-shift work and they thus belong here.

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Three-wheel vehicle (L5e) is a power-driven vehicle with the wheels arranged symmetrically in relation to the longitudinal centre axis and eqipped with a power source with a cylinder capacity exceeding 50 cc in the case of an internal combustion engine or with the maximum design speed exceeding 45 km/h whatever the means of propulsion.

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Timber balance is an estimate of annual changes in the volume of growing stock resulting from biological increment, natural drain and fellings. The estimate for the annual increase in growing stock is calculated as the difference between the average annual increment and annual total drain over 5-yearly periods. The measurement unit is million solid cubic metres with bark.

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The system of national accounts records the flows on accrual basis. In other words, when economic value is created, changed or destroyed or when claims and obligations are born or they are changed or annulled.

Output is recorded when it has been produced and not when the buyer has paid for it, and sales of assets are recorded when the assets are released and not when the corresponding payment is made. Interest is recorded to the accounting period from which it is generated, regardless of whether it is actually paid in that period or not. Accrual-based recording is applied to all flows, both those in money and those that are not measured in money, both within a unit and between units.

All flows should be recorded at the same time for all institutional units involved and in all concerned accounts. In practice, institutional units do not always use the same accounting rules. And even if they do, there may be differences in the actual recording due to practical reasons like delays in communication. Therefore, the performers of the economic transactions in question may record the transactions at different times. These deviations must be corrected with adjustments.

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A stimulant manufactured from or containing leaves, stalks or stems of tobacco plants.

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Provisions concerning tobacco excise are given in the Act on Tobacco Excise (1470/1994). Tobacco excise is levied on tobacco products. Tobacco excise is levied on the retail prices of products reported by those liable to the excise. The excise is also levied per unit on cigarettes, pipe and cigarette tobacco and fine cut rolling tobacco.

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Product made wholly or partly of tobacco and intended for smoking, sniffing, sucking or chewing, whether genetically modified or not.

Tobacco products comprise cigarettes, cigars and cigarillos, pipe and cigarette tobacco, fine cut rolling tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigarette papers and other products containing tobacco.

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Tolling refers to contract-based service smelting / smelting against a fee of concentrates (e.g. copper, nickel). The smelter processes the raw materials or concentrates owned by its agreement partner, delivers the products to the agreement partner or end customer and charges the agreement partner for the smelting service.

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Tonne-kilometre describes the volume of transport, and is obtained as a product of transported volume of goods (tonnes) and length of transport journey (kilometres).

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Top services can be characterised as demanding, progressive, future-oriented or revolutionary.

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Total area comprises the sales surface area, offices, warehouses, staff facilities and other areas belonging to the business premises.

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Total change is increase of population added up with register corrections of population. Increase of population is the sum of excess of births and total net migration.

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Indirect and direct costs in total, from which receipts from collective funds and from other sources of revenue for training are deducted (e.g. EU support).

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The total divorce rate is an index calculated from the divorces granted in one year. Ratios are calculated between the numbers of marriages contracted in different years and ending in divorce and the numbers of all marriages contracted in the same year, respectively. For example, for couples divorced in 2001, a ratio is calculated between those married for 30 years and all couples married in 1971; between those married for 29 years and all couples married in 1972; and so on. The sum of these ratios, expressed per hundred, is the total divorce rate. It indicates the percentage of marriages that would end in divorce if the divorce rate of the reference year remained the same during the entire marriage. Because in certain cases the figure can be higher than 100 per cent, it is not right to interpret it as a probability.

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Total earnings describe the wages paid for regular working hours and other working hours, such as overtime or extra work. Cf. Total working hours.

Total earnings for each pay period include
- basic pay
- supplements based on duties, professional skill, years of service etc.
- supplements based on location and conditions of workplace
- premium pay
- performance-based pay components for salaried employees, wage earners' performance-based earnings
- taxation value for fringe benefits
- earnings for extra and overtime work
- in part also eventual compensation for on-call or urgent work
- other irregularly paid supplements
- (in structural statistics on wages and salaries also pay for working hours not worked).

Total earnings do not include one-off items, such as holiday and performance-based bonuses.

In statistics on wages and salaries, the concept of total earnings including performance bonuses is also used.

The concept of total earnings is used in all statistics on wages and salaries, but its content may vary according to the statistics. In statistics on private sector hourly wages and salaries, for example, total earnings include earnings from regular working hours as well as Sunday and overtime pay premia.

Cf. Regular wages

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The units which constitute the Finnish economy are those units that have a centre of economic interest on the economic territory of Finland. Economic units are categorized as non-financial corporations (S.11), financial corporations (S.12), general government (S.13), households (S.14) and non-profit institutions serving households (S.15).

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Total energy consumption describes total commensurate consumption of domestic energy sources and imported energy in Finland. It includes fuels used in the production and processing of energy, and energy used in final consumption, including transport fuels and fuels used for heating buildings.

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Total amounts of fuels used in manufacturing and amounts of electricity and heat purchased from outside for own use (net purchases, i.e. purchased/received - sold/delivered). Thus the amounts of energy are commensurable and when summed up describe the total consumption of energy in a given industry.

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Total energy used refers to fuels, and hydro, wind and nuclear power used in the generation of electricity and heat made commensurate into primary energy. Hydro power and wind power are made commensurate with fuels according to directly obtained electricity (3.6 PJ/TWh) and nuclear energy at the efficiency ratio of 33 per cent from produced nuclear power (10.91 TJ/GWh). The practice complies with the international method used for calculations in energy statistics.

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The total fertility rate is obtained by adding together fertility rates calculated for one year. This figure refers to the estimated number of children the woman gives birth to, provided that the fertility rate of that year prevails during the whole reproductive period of that woman on condition that she will not die before the end of the said period.

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Total index is the index calculated as a weighted average from all the sub-series belonging to the description area of the index. Total index can be calculated as a weighted index of detailed price index series describing different commodity groups.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The total marriage rate describes the proportion of women (generally per 100 or 1,000 persons) that contract marriage in their lives, on condition that none of them die and that the marriage rate in the pertinent cohort remains constant throughout the period when these women belong to the age groups of 15 to 49 years. It is computed by adding up the age-specific marriage rates of first marriages in the whole age period. For the age-specific marriage rate a ratio is calculated between the number of women contracting marriages and all the women in the age group and not only the non-married ones.

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Total net migration is the sum of intermunicipal migration and net migration.

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The volume of total production refers to the output manufactured by the enterprise or its establishment during the calendar year. It comprises sold production and production intended to be sold, output produced for stock as well as output that either is being, will be or has been reprocessed by the enterprise. Data on total production for a calendar year are inquired, in addition to data on sold production, only in the case of separately defined commodities. Only the volume and not the value of total production is usually reported.

Data on total production are inquired as complementary data on those production/commodity headings on which the data on sold production (i.e. sales) are not thought to describe actual manufacturing sufficiently.

Volume of total production = the volume of output produced during the statistical reference year irrespective of whether it is produced for sale or further processing within the same legal unit.

If total production is inquired from the product heading concerned, it is inquired either for the needs of Eurostat or Statistics Finland.

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Total transit transport describes the volume of goods carried by transit transport through Finland. The volume of total transit transport is obtained by adding together the volumes of transit transports by road and rail or by examining the volume of transit transport by sea.

The volumes of transit transports by road and rail do not add up exactly to the volume of transit transport by sea due to differences in the methods for compiling statistics on different forms of transport.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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In structural statistics on wages and salaries, total working hours are calculated on the basis of personal regular weekly working hours and the average paid hours of extra and overtime work. On-call hours are not included in the total working hours. Total working hours describe the monthly working hours that form the basis for the payment of wages.

Total working hours cannot be defined in structural statistics on wages and salaries, if an employee's regular weekly working hours are not known.

Total earnings are based on total working hours. Cf. Total earnings

Cf. Regular weekly working hours

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Tourism expenditure refers to the total consumption expenditure made by a visitor, or on behalf of a visitor for goods and services during his/her trip and stay at the destination place (country). It also includes payments in advance or after the trip for services received during the trip. Payments for domestics or international passenger transport are also included in tourism expenditure (cf. Travel accounts in the Balance of Payments).

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In the Finnish Travel survey, tourism to neighbouring countries refers to tourism to the nearby geographic area. It also includes cruises outside the territorial waters of Finland in the Baltic Sea. The nearby countries of Finland consist of Sweden, Estonia, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Latvia and Lithuania. Tourism to neighbouring countries includes all kinds of visits: holiday and leisure trips, business and professional trips, as well as overnight trips and same-day visits.

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A tourist (overnight visitor) is a visitor who stays at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited. An international tourist is an international visitor who stays at least one night in the country visited. A domestic tourist refers to a domestic visitor who stays at least one night in the place visited.

A visitor who does not spent one night during the trip is called same-day visitor.

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Tourist accommodation refers to any facility that regularly or occasionally provides overnight accommodation for tourists. Accommodation can be chargeable or free.

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A vehicle specifically designed for agricultural and forestry work to run implements of haul trailers coupled to it. Special forestry machines such as logging tractors or forwarders, or forestry machines built on earthmoving machines are not classified as tractors but as motorised work machines.

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The trade account describes the balance of foreign trade in goods in terms of exports and imports.

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Export claims and advances as well as import accounts payable and advances are classified under trade credits. Trade credits refer to trade credits related to goods and services trade, such as accounts payable, supplier credits (term of payment granted by foreign sellers), trade payables and advances received from foreign buyers for the current or future delivery of goods or services.

Trade credit data are collected in connection with surveys on the foreign assets and liabilities of companies and government bodies. The figures on trade credits, obtained from business surveys used for the regular, intra-year compilation of statistics, are increased according to their coverage, because exporters and importers considerably outnumber the companies relevant for financial transactions.

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The output of wholesale and retail services is measured by the trade margins realised on the goods they purchase for resale. A trade margin is the difference between the actual or imputed price realised on a good purchased for resale and the price that would have to be paid by the distributor to replace the good at the time it is sold or otherwise disposed of.

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Adjustments for trading days take into account different distributions of weekdays and public holidays in the compared months. Trading days could put the sales of an industry above normal in a certain month if the month concerned contains a higher than usual number of Fridays. In other words, the aim in making adjustments for trading days is to remove calendar effects in order to make the index figures for the corresponding months of different years as comparable as possible. However, adjustments for trading days do not remove the effects of monthly seasonal variation.

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The trading gain is the same as the real gain from foreign trade.

The real gross domestic income can be derived by adding the so-called trading gain to volume figures on gross domestic product. The trading gain B or, as the case may be, loss B is defined as the current balance of exports less imports, deflated by a price index, less the difference between the deflated value of exports and the deflated value of imports. In the circumstances in which there is uncertainty about the choice of deflator an average of the import and the export price indices is likely to provide a suitable deflator.

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A trailer of a motor vehicle is a hauled vehicle constructed for the transportation of goods or for tourism purposes.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A transaction is an economic flow that is an interaction between institutional units by mutual agreement or an action within an institutional unit that it is useful to treat as a transaction, often because the unit is operating in two different capacities. It is convenient to divide transactions into four main groups:

a) transactions in products - which describe the origin (domestic output or imports) and use (intermediate consumption, final consumption, capital formation or exports) of products ;

b) distributive transactions - which describe how value added generated by production is distributed to labour, capital and government, and the redistribution of income and wealth (taxes on income and wealth and other transfers);

c) financial transactions - which describe the net acquisition of financial assets or the net incurrence of liabilities for each type of financial instrument. Such transactions often occur as counterparts of non-financial transactions, but they may also occur as transactions involving only financial instruments;

d) transactions not included in the three groups above:
consumption of fixed capital and acquisitions less disposals of non-produced non financial assets.

Most transactions are monetary transactions, where the units involved make or receive payments, or incur liabilities or receive assets denominated in units of currency. Transactions that do not involve the exchange of cash, or assets or liabilities denominated in units of currency, are non-monetary transactions.
Intra-unit transactions are normally non-monetary transactions. Non-monetary transactions involving more than one institutional unit occur among transactions in products (barter of products), distributive transactions (remuneration in kind, transfers in kind, etc.) and other transactions (barter of non-produced non-financial assets).

All transactions are recorded in monetary terms. The values to be recorded for non-monetary transactions must therefore be measured indirectly or otherwise estimated.

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A transaction of shares in a housing corporation refers to a sale of shares entitling ownership of a dwelling in a housing corporation, for which an asset transfer notification has been made to the Tax Administration.

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Transfer price coefficients are calculated from changes in the building cost index. They are used in calculating compensations paid in transferring shares in a tenement building of a joint-stock property company or housing company or the maximum price of a tenement building financed with a long-term renovation loan.

The coefficient is calculated using the currently valid building cost index. Building cost indices of different years have their own product selections and weight structures. This ensures that the index measures correctly the structure of building costs prevalent at each point in time.

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Transit transport refers to transport of a load through one country while the places of departure and destination are in another country or countries and the load is transported through the transit country without loading or unloading.

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Transit transport by rail refers to transportation in the same railway carriage through one country while the places of departure and destination are in another country. In Statistics Finland's statistics on transit transport through Finland transit transport by rail refers to the volume of rail transit transport crossing the Finnish eastern border.

Transit transport by rail mainly comprises transit transport of goods from and to Finnish harbours. In addition, a small volume of transit transport by rail takes place across the Finnish land border in the north.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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In the statistics on transit transport via Finland, transit transport by sea describes the volume of transit transports arriving at Finnish ports and departing from them by sea.

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Transport includes sea, air, railway, road and inland water passenger and freight transport and support activities for them. In addition, transport comprises postal and courier services.

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Transport between third countries, or cross-transport, refers to transport with lorries registered in Finland between two other countries.

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Transportation of people or goods for a fee, i.e. transportation subject to a licence.

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In the Balance of Payments (BOP), travel covers primarily the goods and services acquired from an economy by a traveller during visits of less than one year in that economy. It includes the goods and services purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveller or provided without a quid quo pro for the traveller to use or give away. Included are payments made for goods and services in advance or afterwards. Excluded is the international carriage of travellers, which is covered (in the BOP) in passenger services under transportation (cf. the general definition of Tourism expenditure).

As an item in the BOP, Travel accounts indicate the ratio between the receipts and expenditure of international tourism of a given country. The balance is positive when receipts from non-resident tourists (credit) are bigger than the expenditure of resident tourists abroad (debit). The balance is negative when debit exceeds credit.

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A travel-to-work area is formed by a central municipality and surrounding municipalities from which at least 10 per cent of the labour force commute to the central municipality. A travel-to-work area is named after the central municipality and is given a two-digit code. Municipalities outside travel-to-work areas receive the code 00.

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A treasury bill is a zero-interest negotiable bearer instrument issued by a central government (not only that of Finland).

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Trend describes the long-term development in a time series. A trend series has been adjusted for seasonal and random variations, so that the effects of e.g. weather conditions or short-term labour disputes do not show in it. By contrast, permanent changes, such as growth in demand due to changed taxation, will show in a trend. The direction indicated by the end of a trend should be interpreted with caution. The latter part of a trend indicator may change once it has been updated with data for subsequent months.

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As a statistical unit of tourism, a trip depicts tourism from the standpoint of the generating place or country (the origin) and covers the whole period a person travels away from home (origin-based perspective).

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A trip (visit) abroad refers to a trip made by a resident of a given country outside the national borders of his/her country of residence and outside his/her usual environment for leisure, business or other reason. The maximum duration of stay in the destination country is 12 consecutive months. A trip is an operational statistical unit of outbound tourism and it is derived from the World Tourism Organization's definitions of 'outbound tourism' and 'international visitor'.

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In the Finnish Travel survey, a trip to own holiday home is one type of leisure travel with free accommodation.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The turnover of an affiliate comprises all market sales of goods or services supplied to third parties irrespective of whether the customers are external to the group or companies belonging to the same group.
The total turnover (100%) should be reported even if the group does not exercise full ownership over the affiliate.
Turnover comprises sales profits from the actual activity of the affiliate, after deduction of granted discounts and rebates, value added tax and other taxes based directly on sales volume. Turnover also includes all other charges (transport, packaging, etc.) passed on to the customer.
Income classified as other operating income, financial income and extra-ordinary income and revenue from the use by others of enterprise assets yielding interest, royalties and dividends and other income according to the International accounting standards (IAS/IFRS) is excluded from turnover. Operating subsidies received from public authorities or the institutions of the European Union are also excluded.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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In the accommodation statistics of Statistics Finland, accommodation establishments (hotels and similar establishments, tourist camping sites, holiday villages, youth hostels) are classified by certain characteristics to some 20 groups. The classification is informal and characterises the activity of an establishment. For instance, hotels are classified by type into the following groupings: conference/business hotels, spa hotels, summer hotels, resort hotels, estate hotels, residential hotels and motels.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Type of cargo indicates the type of container in which goods are transported.

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Type of contractual employment relationship describes the legal relationship between an employee and employer. In statistics on wages and salaries contractual employment relationships are referred to as either permanent /valid indefinitely or fixed-term. A contractual employment relationship may also concern specific employee categories such as trainees, trainees on apprenticeship contracts, persons with disabilities and those employed with employment promotion subsidies.

The data is usually directly obtained from inquiries for statistics on wages and salaries. In statistics on the structure of earnings, data on persons employed with employment promotion subsidies are supplemented by data obtained from the register of job seekers of the Ministry of Employment and the Economy.

Employment relationship is the corresponding concept referred to in the statistics on wages and salaries in the municipal sector and the corresponding statistics of the government.

Cf. atypical employment in the Labour Force Survey (fixed-term and/or part-time).

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Type of employment relationship describes the legal relationship between an employee and employer. In statistics on wages and salaries employment relationships are referred to as either permanent /valid indefinitely or fixed-term. An employment relationship may also concern specific employee categories such as trainees, trainees on apprenticeship contracts, persons with disabilities or those employed with employment promotion subsidies.

The data is usually directly obtained from inquiries for statistics on wages and salaries. In statistics on the structure of earnings, data on persons employed with employment promotion subsidies are supplemented by data obtained from the register of job seekers of the Ministry of Employment and the Economy.

Contractual employment relationship is the corresponding concept referred to in the statistics on wages and salaries in the private sector.

Cf. atypical employment in the Labour Force Survey (fixed-term and/or part-time).

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Families are grouped into the following types:
- married couple without children
- cohabiting couple without children
- married couple with children
- cohabiting couple with children
- registered male couple without children
- registered male couple with children
- registered female couple without children
- registered female couple with children
- mother with children
- father with children.

A married or cohabiting couple without children refers to a couple who has never had any children or whose children no longer live with their parents. 'Cohabiting couple with children' contains couples who have common children and also couples whose children are not common.

For reasons of data protection, those living in registered partnerships are grouped together with married persons in municipal tables.

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A classification describing the financing source of a dwelling or real estate.

A government-subsidised dwelling is a dwelling produced with government ARAVA loans, in which the rent is determined by the cost correlation principle. Most of government-subsidised dwellings are owned by municipalities.

Non-subsidised dwellings are other than government-subsidised dwellings.

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In the statistics on providers of education and educational institutions owners of educational institutions are divided into the following groups:
1 Private
2 State
3 Municipality
4 Joint municipal board
5 Region of Åland
9 Other.

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The enterprises and corporations included in the Register of Enterprises and Establishments are divided into the following categories by type of ownership:

Private domestic
State
Municipality
Region of Åland
Foreign-owned
Other type of ownership.

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Buildings are divided into the following categories by tenure status:
- private person/ death estate
- housing corporation or co-operative
- real estate corporation
- private company
- company controlled by the State or municipality
- State or municipal corporation
- bank or insurance company
- municipality
- State
- social security fund
- religious community, foundation, party, etc.
- other or unknown.

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