Published: 28 February 2019

Number of coercive measures on level with the previous year

According to Statistics Finland's data, the police, customs and border guard used coercive measures 195,100 times in 2018, which was 600 coercive measures (0.3 per cent) fewer than in the previous year. In terms of numbers, apprehensions based on the Police Act decreased most. In all, 8.8 per cent more examinations of state of intoxication and 7.4 per cent more searches of data contained in a device were made than in the previous year.

Coercive measures of the police, customs and border guard in 2009 to 2018

Coercive measures of the police, customs and border guard in 2009 to 2018

In 2018, the police used coercive measures 187,800 times. This is 96 per cent of all coercive measures used. The customs used coercive measures 5,400 times (three per cent) and the border guard 1,900 times (one per cent). The share of the customs and the border guard were small in all main coercive measure groups. The customs and the border guard performed close on one-fifth of confiscations.

Coercive measures against freedom

In 2018, a total of 22,200 apprehensions were made, which is 700 cases (three per cent) fewer than in the year before. The number of arrests made was 8,500, down by 300 cases (3.6 per cent) from one year earlier. The number of remands was 2,100, which is 40 cases (1.9 per cent) fewer than in 2017. Altogether, 550 travel bans were imposed, which is 18.8 per cent more than in 2017, when exceptionally few travel bans were imposed.

At the beginning of 2016, a coercive measure concerning detention of foreigners entered into force. In 2018, a total of 1,550 such detentions of foreigners were recorded, which is 4.6 per cent more than one year earlier. The most common reason for the detention of a foreigner was that a foreigner would hinder the preparation and enforcement of decision-making concerning him or her by hiding or running or in some other way. This was the basis for around 2,500 cases. Another common reason for detention was that a foreigner was suspected of a crime and detention is necessary to ensure the preparation or enforcement of the decision on deportation. This reason was used around 1,800 times. One coercive measure can contain several grounds, so the number of grounds is higher than the number of actual coercive measures. Altogether 8,800 grounds were used in 1,500 detentions of foreigners last year. The detention of a foreigner is not necessarily criminally based, but a foreigner can be detained without suspicion of a crime.

The number of intoxicated persons taken into custody has fallen in recent years. In 2018, the number of intoxicated persons taken into custody was 51,800. This is 2,800 cases (5.1 per cent) fewer than in 2017. Taking intoxicated persons into custody is a coercive measure based on the Police Act, where the object of the coercive measure is usually not suspected of an offence but the coercive measure is used to ensure the safety of the person or his or her environment.

Coercive measures against freedom by sex in 2018

Coercive measures against freedom by sex in 2018

A majority of coercive measures against freedom were directed at Finnish citizens. Apprehensions based on the Police Act are often taking intoxicated persons into custody, but this group also includes other temporary apprehensions to ensure that domestic or public premises are not invaded. Information on nationality is based on Statistics Finland’s register data. If there are no register data, police records are used.

Coercive measures against freedom by nationality 2017 and 2018

  Total Apprehension based on the Police Act Apprehension Arrest Remand Detention of a foreigner
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
Total 89,907 86,114 54,600 51,789 22,890 22,200 8,783 8,468 2,143 2,103 1,491 1,554
Finland 75,825 72,230 49,049 46,446 18,246 17,492 6,976 6,788 1,554 1,504 0 0
Estonia 3,013 3,400 1,382 1,493 1,097 1,225 258 331 62 105 214 246
Iraq 1,779 1,453 657 441 602 558 225 169 60 43 235 242
Romania 1,145 1,018 286 218 335 353 278 209 99 76 147 162
Russian Federation 1,000 1,019 382 427 349 334 151 149 51 42 67 67
Somalia 797 815 600 551 142 169 34 44 3 12 18 39
Sweden 523 550 259 317 144 155 85 53 31 21 4 4
Afghanistan 488 409 214 161 137 124 42 43 8 17 87 64
Gambia 296 432 23 11 138 207 33 58 8 15 94 141
Latvia 261 325 112 169 100 109 28 28 11 6 10 13
Lithuania 267 252 61 79 78 73 74 55 43 24 11 21
Bulgaria 172 237 57 68 51 96 39 30 8 14 17 29
Belarus 235 197 22 22 100 79 53 38 9 9 51 49
Georgia 217 205 22 17 84 83 43 28 15 19 53 58
Unknown 212 151 118 104 56 28 10 6 3 2 25 11
Poland 206 159 115 85 53 48 24 15 6 5 8 6
Morocco 201 155 41 64 74 43 26 17 10 10 50 21
Ukraine 137 181 48 45 53 70 24 41 2 6 10 19
Without citizenship 176 160 63 55 70 52 13 22 2 12 28 19
Islamic Republic of Iran 156 158 46 55 47 53 37 19 18 8 8 23
Algeria 147 63 33 10 57 27 16 6 7 2 34 18
Turkey 143 92 35 24 60 37 16 14 4 8 28 9
Nigeria 142 126 10 16 60 52 15 11 7 3 50 44
Syrian Arab Republic 116 124 53 39 36 47 15 23 5 7 7 8
Albania 108 85 5 8 35 23 24 18 19 17 25 19
Other 2,145 2,118 907 864 686 663 244 253 98 116 210 222

Other coercive measures

At the beginning of 2014, new coercive measures came into force: search of data contained in a device and search of premises. A search of data contained in a device refers to a search directed to the data content contained in a computer, a terminal end device or in another corresponding technical device or information system. In 2018, altogether 6,400 searches of data contained in a device were performed, which is 7.4 per cent more than in 2017. A search of premises refers to a search conducted elsewhere than in a public place but not a domicile. Searches of premises numbered 7,300, most of which were carried out to find an object or property to be confiscated or to clarify an offence. Compared with the previous year, 6.8 per cent more searches of premises were performed.

The number of bodily searches and physical examinations and possible confiscations related to them increased by 1.3 per cent from the previous year. Their number was 29,900 in 2018. Physical examinations were done to determine the DNA profile of a suspect and to detect consumption of alcohol or other narcotics. Confiscations and house searches possibly made in their connection numbered 38,600, which is 800 cases (2.2 per cent) more than in the year before. The number of confiscations and house searches has decreased considerably compared to 2013 as part of them are now recorded as searches of premises or searches of data contained in a device.

The number of enforced restraining orders continued to fall. Altogether, 1,300 restraining orders were enforced in 2018, which is 14.7 per cent fewer than one year earlier and 17.7 per cent fewer than in 2016.

A total of 25,800 coercive measures were directed at women, i.e. 13.2 per cent of all coercive measures. Women's shares were small in all types of coercive measures. Of the coercive measures directed at women, 29 per cent were taking intoxicated persons into custody and 14.7 per cent were physical examinations and confiscations. Around seven per cent of coercive measures were not directed at persons but, for example, at legal persons or premises.

Examinations to detect narcotics use have increased

In all, 7,600 examinations of state of intoxication with a precision breathalyser were recorded in 2018, which was 300 cases (3.7 per cent) more than in 2017. The number of examinations of state of intoxication with a blood test was 13,600 in 2018, which was 1,100 cases (8.8 per cent) more than in 2017. Examinations of state of intoxication in order to detect narcotics use increased by 14.1 per cent and examinations to determine the blood alcohol level increased by 2.8 per cent from 2017.

Investigations of drunken driving in 2013 - 2018

  2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Breath alcohol 9,597 8,528 8,206 7,790 7,369 7,638
Request to examine state of intoxication 11,000 11,345 11,538 11,662 12,456 13,554
Of which            
...Blood alcohol 7,669 7,228 6,705 6,578 6,493 6,678
...Narcotics 4,504 5,254 6,123 6,555 7,665 8,742
...Consumption after driving 1,899 1,734 1,644 1,461 1,365 1,386
...Theoretical statement on state of intoxication 344 261 237 199 192 184
...Alcohol back calculation 1,051 882 778 692 604 596

The database tables describing coercive measures have been revised in connection with the release on 28 February 2019. They contain further information on the duration of apprehensions, arrests and remands as well as more detailed information on the grounds for coercive measures.

The statistics on Offences known to the police and on Coercive measures were combined in March 2015. Data released prior to that can be found on the old home pages of the statistics. The web pages of the statistics on Offences known to the police: http://www.stat.fi/til/polrik/index_en.html and of the statistics on Coercive measures: http://stat.fi/til/pkei/index_en.html


Source: Statistics on offences and coercive measures 2018. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Kimmo Haapakangas 029 551 3252, rikos@stat.fi

Director in charge: Jari Tarkoma

Publication in pdf-format (240.4 kB)

Tables

Tables in databases

Appendix tables


Updated 28.2.2019

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Statistics on offences and coercive measures [e-publication].
ISSN=2342-9178. Coercive measures 2018. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 15.12.2019].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/rpk/2018/14/rpk_2018_14_2019-02-28_tie_001_en.html