New data from these statistics will be published on the home page of the Local government finances by quarter.

Concepts and definitions

Annual contribution margin

Annual contribution margin indicates the income financing available for investments and the paying of loan instalments after running costs have been covered. It is a key figure when evaluating the adequacy of income financing. The basic assumption is that income financing is adequate if the annual contribution margin is at least equal to the capital depreciations.

The depreciations indicate the average annual need for replacement investments. If the annual contribution margin covers depreciations (replacement investments), the municipality does not need to contract debts, realise capital assets or long-term investments or lower its working capital in order to keep the production system of services operational. If the annual contribution margin is negative, income financing does not even cover running costs.

Annual expenditure

Annual expenditure comprises all expenditure items, i.e. operating costs and finance costs, in the profit and loss account before the annual contribution margin.

Annual profit - annual expenditure = annual contribution margin

Annual profit

Annual profit comprises all profit, i.e. operating profit, production for own use, inventory of finished products, tax revenue, state subsidies and financing income, in the profit and loss account before the annual contribution margin.

Annual profit - annual expenses = annual contribution margin

Financial statement estimate

The financial statement estimate is an estimate collected by Statistics Finland and the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities annually in January from all municipalities and joint municipal boards, and it projects how certain items of the profit and loss account, funds statement and balance sheet will be formed in the financial statement of the past year. The data are collected separately for other municipal/joint municipal board activities and the enterprises following the municipal enterprise model in a way which allows them to be combined into an estimate of the key items in the municipal financial statement. No data by municipality or joint municipal board are published from financial statement estimates.

Loan stock

Liabilities - (Advances received + Accounts payable + Adjusting entries for liabilities + Other liabilities) from the balance sheet of the municipality/joint municipal board.

The loan stock of a municipality or joint municipal board refers to interest-bearing liabilities.

Municipal enterprise

A way to organise municipal business activities. Municipal enterprises following the so-called municipal enterprise model are independent units in terms of accounting to which the council of the municipality or joint municipal board has granted a more independent budgetary status than that of other municipal functional units. According to the instructions of the Municipal Section of the Accounting Board, municipal enterprises draft separate financial statements containing a profit and loss account, a funds statement and a balance sheet.

A municipal enterprise is part of the municipal administration and finances; it is not a separate legal person and it does not have an independent legal obligation to keep books.

Only a part of municipal enterprises follow the municipal enterprise model. In statistics on the finances of municipalities and joint municipal boards other municipal business operations (incl. enterprises treated as so called other balance sheet units and business with separate accounts) are treated in the same way as other municipal activities. Income and expenditure from joint-stock or other such business operations are not included in the statistics on the finances of municipalities even if the municipality owns the entire capital stock of the enterprise.

The profit and loss account in the municipal budget includes settlements between the municipality and a municipal enterprise (internal interest paid and return on the municipal enterprise's fixed capital) but not the municipal enterprise's "own" profit and loss estimates. Hence a municipal enterprise is not linked to the municipal budget "line by line". According to the budget recommendation of the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities, the municipality must also compile for its budget a profit and loss statement that includes the profit and loss estimates of the municipal enterprise line by line and from which the interest paid on internal loans and the return on fixed capital have been eliminated. The municipality can use this profit and loss estimate in communicating about its budget to the public.

The separate financial statement of a municipal enterprise is integrated "line by line" into the municipality's or joint municipal board's financial statement to form an overall financial statement.

Since a municipal enterprise is treated differently in the budget than in the financial statement, the figures in the budget and the financial statement may not be comparable.

In order to compile statistics on financial statement estimates and budgets, Statistics Finland collects separate data from the municipal enterprises' financial statement estimates and budgets. This enables the combining of the municipalities' and their municipal enterprises' budgets and financial statement estimates into a comprehensive budget/financial statement estimate for the entire municipality, whose figures are comparable with those of the financial statement. In Statistics Finland's budget publications the budgets of municipalities and joint municipal boards are published without the budgets of enterprises following the municipal enterprise model. Combined budgets, or budget data comparable with financial statements, are also published on the Statistics Finland website.

Tax funding

The tax-based financing of municipalities comprises municipal tax revenue and state subsidies to municipalities.

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Quarterly statistics on the finances of municipalities [e-publication].
Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 9.12.2021].
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