6 Concepts

Parents of families with children are women and men with their own or their spouse’s children aged under 18 living in the same household.

Women and men without children are women and men without children aged under 18 living in the same household. Thus they include

  • Persons without any children

  • So-called remote parents whose child lives or is registered at the address of the other parent and

  • Parents whose children are aged over 18 or have already moved into their own household.

More than 99 per cent of the parents of children aged under 18 locate in the age group of those aged 20 to 59, so this article examines parents belonging to that age group. Women and men of the same age without any children are used as their comparison group in order to make these groups comparable in respect of age and stage in life.

Family leaves comprise maternity and paternity leave, parental leave (incl. so-called “daddy” month) and child care leave. They are leaves for which the parents of small children are entitled to take by law from work in order to care for the child until the youngest child reaches the age of three. The employment contracts of the parents remain valid during these family leaves. Persons on maternity or paternity leave and persons on leaves lasting under three months are classified as employed in the Labour Force Survey.

A person is employed if he/she has during the survey week been in gainful employment for at least one hour against pay in money or fringe benefits, or to make a profit, or has been temporarily absent from work. Persons absent from work during the survey week are classified as employed if the reason for absence is maternity or paternity leave or own illness or the absence has lasted for under three months. Employed persons can be employees, self-employed or unpaid workers in enterprises of a family member.

The employment rate is the ratio of employed persons to the population of the same age. The employment rate of the total population is calculated as the ratio of employed persons aged 15 to 64 to the population of the same age.

The unemployment rate is the ratio of unemployed persons to the active population (labour force) of the same age, i.e. employed and unemployed persons. The employment rate of the total population is calculated as the ratio of unemployed persons aged 15 to 74 to the active population (labour force) of the same age.

Caring for children, no employment relationship : These persons do not have an employment relationship and in the interview they have reported child care as their principal activity.

No employment relationship, principal activity other than child care : These persons do not have an employment relationship and in the interview they have reported other than child care as their principal activity. This group includes such as students and unemployed persons.


Source: Labour Force Survey 2011. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Heidi Melasniemi-Uutela 09 1734 2523, Tarja Nieminen 09 1734 3561, tyovoimatutkimus@stat.fi

Director in charge: Riitta Harala


Updated 11.9.2012

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Labour force survey [e-publication].
ISSN=1798-7857. Families and work in 2011 2011, 6 Concepts . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 15.10.2019].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/tyti/2011/14/tyti_2011_14_2012-09-11_kat_006_en.html